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Human Body - From the Viewpoint of Ayurveda


Yogacharya Vishwas Mandlik
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Introduction - Ayurveda

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We have introduced ourselves to the human body by viewing it under various modern equipments, analyzing and examining various elements of it through different chemicals and examining the entire system, and its parts. A question naturally arises as to why the same human body is to be considered through the ayurvedic perspective. Because even if the body is viewed from the angle of ayurveda, the nature of the body or its functioning does not change. It is not possible that the structure and the function of the body are different in ayurveda and modern sciences. But the method of study of the organs of the body is different though their structure and functions remain the same.

Though we have resorted to the modern science to study the structure and the functions of the human body, yet for a comprehensive study of the reasons and the results of the never ending complicated and numerous processes of the internal organs of the body, one must resort to the ayurveda which thinks about the power which is behind these processes. The yoga sadhakas assume inseparable relation of the body and the mind and try to go beyond it; it is useful for them to understand the view. Hence, a student of yoga, should resort to modern sciences wherever necessary, and yet study the body from the ayurvedic point of view.

Ayurveda has evolved the origin of the body by following "Je Pindi te Brahmandi" (principle found in a jiva is the same as that found in the universe) and "Je Brahmandi te Pindi " (principle found in the universe is the same as that found in a jiva), the two dictums as the basis. Since the nature is based on panchmahabhootas, the body should also be based on them. It is said that Prithvi (Earth), Aap (Water), Tej ( Fire ), Vayu ( Air ) and Aakash ( Space ) the panchmahabhootas and the soul together form the body. It is stated as " Shatdhatvatmaka Purushaha" while clarifying this Charaka has defined the body as under :

Tatra shariram naam chetanadhishtanabhutam |
Panchmahabhootvikar samudayatmakam samyogavahi || C S 6.

Chaitanya (Consciousness) and the elements arising out of panchmahabhootas (Five basic principles earth, fire, water, air, space or ether) form the body.

As the body is formed out of panchmahabhootas (Five basic principles earth, fire, water, air, space or ether), the five sense organs in the body possess the virtues of these panchmahabhootas (Five basic principles earth, fire, water, air, space or ether). The characteristics of akasha (space or ether), that is shabda ( sound ) is received by the ears. The characteristics of vayu (air), that is sparsha (touch) is perceived through the skin. Characteristics of teja (Fire), that is roopa (view) is seen through the eyes. Characteristics of aapa (water), that is rasa (taste) is perceived through the tongue. The characteristics of the prithvi (earth), that is gandha (smell) is perceived through nose. That means the body formed out of panchamahabhootas (Five basic principles earth, fire, water, air, space or ether) through its five sensory organs perceives the characteristics of those panchamahbhootas. The nature of the panchamahabhootas in the other organs of the body is as under :

Parthiv Bhav ( Earthly nature ) : Nails, bones, teeth, flesh, skin, excretion, beard, body hair, hair etc.

Jaliya Bhav ( Nature of water ) : Fluids, kapha, pitta, urine, perspiration, and saliva.

Aagneya Bhav ( Nature of fire ): Pitta, heat, the glow of the body, view, eyesight etc.

Vayviya bhav ( Nature of air ): Breathing, blinking and opening of the eyelids, speed, inspiration, dharana etc.

Aakashiya bhav ( Nature of space ) : All holes, hollow places, small and big strota, vocal system and ear system.

Thus, the body formed out of panchamahabhootas, while working gets burned down or degenerated. "Shiryate tat shariram", that which degenerates is known as body. The body elements degenerate and get lost again in panchmahabhootas. The same are again formed anew. The body actually demands for their new formation from the surrounding panchamahabhoutik nature. The elements in the surrounding panchmahabhoutic nature are picked up willingly by the body and assimilated. The symptoms such as desire, hunger, and thirst are commonly felt. Also, hatred towards the element, which has been created in excess is also born. In any natural process, these three things are included.

Visargadanvikshepe somsuryanila yatha |
Dharyanti jagddeham kaphapitta nilastatatha || Sushrut ||

Visarg ( giving strength ), Aadan ( taking away of strength ), Vikshepa ( movement ) , behind these three things, there are three strengths in the nature, Chandra, Surya and Vayu (moon, sun and wind ). While thinking about the body, this work is done by kapha, pitta and vat. This is stated in Ayurveda.

These three principles ( doshas -kapha, vat and pitta ) do the disintegration and integration of the components in the body. The medium of these three doshas is responsible for these disintegration and integration actions. As these three doshas are endowed with their characteristics, they are termed as dravya ( liquid ). The ayurvedic doctors too have different opinions about these tridoshas. There was a conference on tridosha in 1935 at Hindu Vishwavidyalaya at Kashi. There was discussion amongst renowned pandits and the following conclusions were drawn regarding tridoshas. The strengths cannot stay independently, and need support of liquids, hence vat, kapha and pitta are not strengths but liquids. But according to their locations, they are gross at some places and subtle at others ( cannot be seen). They are exhibited through actions at such places.

Kapha is a white colored substance, which is cold, heavy, slow, sticky and glossy type. Even if it is subtle or gross, it has these qualities. As per ayurveda, kapha amounts to six palm full. That means it can be in liquid form too. Even if the oily part of the kapha is demonstrated through the organs, its other characteristics are according to its functions.

Pitta is hot, sharp, a little bit of expansive property, with particular smell or strong smell. Even if these are demonstrated through organs, other characteristics are as per functions. Pitta is five palmfuls. This also is a liquid substance.

Vat is dry, less cold as compared with kapha, tiny and movable. This substance is of moving nature and not related to body organs. This is at some places gross and at most of the places subtle. It is called as Avyaktovyaktakarma " that is even if it is not expressed on its own, it is expressed through actions.

The health or ill health of the body depends on these three substances. Also, most of the movements in the body are also dependent on this. Even if all the substances in the nature and in this body are panchmahabhoutik, the main functional ones are only three i e aap, tej and vayu. For carrying out their functions, these three substances have to seek help from the earth and the sky. Hence, the doshas are also three. There is another stream of thought that the life of the body and the most supportive element i e the blood is also the fourth dosha. But it is more proper to recognize blood as dhatu instead of dosha.

If these three doshas are equal in proportion in the body (individual), then the body functions all right. But when this equality is disturbed, ill health sets in. To reduce the substance, which has become excessive or to increase one, which is reduced, one has to plan proper medicine or other process. The nature has a number of substances surrounding the body. The substance, which is absorbed in the body affects it and causes certain symptoms. At times, the equality in the three doshas is damaged and ailments start. There are different characteristics of the elements of the body, they are of twenty types.

Heavyness, slowness, coldness, oilyness, smoothness, thickness, softness, firmness, minuteness, and the opposites of this that is lightweight, swift, warm, dry, rough, thin, hard, moving, gross, sticky etc. Out of these twenty characteristics, oily, cold, heavy, slow, soft, sticky and solid are reflected through the prithvi and aap elements out of the panchmahabhootas. If these substances are absorbed more into the body than needed, and are demonstrated by the body through lithargy, heaviness, softness etc, then one can say kapha dosha is on the increase. Because these characteristics are of kapha dosha. Also, oily, sharp, small, hot etc characteristics are reflected in tej-based elements. If these substances are absorbed more into the body, and are demonstrated by symptoms such as thirst, burning, fever etc, then one can say pitta dosha is on the increase. Also, sensations such as dryness, smallness, coldness, roughness, minuteness and movement etc are reflected through the vayu and aakash or logical elements. If they are absorbed more into the body and are demonstrated through symptoms such as sleeplessness, dryness, lightweight etc then one can say vatdosha is on the increase.

If the three doshas i e vat, pitta and kapha are equalised, then their functions support each other and the body remains healthy. The proportion of each dosha to the desired extent is known as doshasamya. If it increases or decreases it is known as doshavaishamya. So while studying the body the health or ill health, first one must consider the three doshas. After the three doshas, one has to consider dhatu and mal. Because it is stated that " Doshadhatumalamulam hi shariram | " Vakbhata has the following reference:

Vayuh pittam kaphascheti trayo doshah samasatah | V S 1.6
Vikruta vikruta deham ghananti the vardhayanticha | V S 1.7

The body contains three doshas kapha, pitta, vayu. When they go astray, they destroy the life. When they are equalised, they govern the life. Ras, Rakta, Mans, Med, Asthi, Majja and Shukra are seven dhatus. These are also called substances. Urine, stool and sweat are known as mal. They are also substances, both of these can be affected by the doshas.

Ras (Fluids) - This is a flowing dhatu. When one consumes food that is a square meal, based on panchmahabhootas, including six rasas, twenty characteristics and all types of viryas and when the food is digested properly after being processed by the fire in the stomach, the substance generated which is minute essence is known as rasa. Its place is the heart and that is circulated through all the vessels due to the vyanvayu all over the body. It also supplies dhatus necessary for the growth of the children, dhatus which are weakened in the old people, and continues to maintain the stability in the middle aged persons. It stays alive in the body. Other dhatus are then made up of rasa.

Rakta (Blood) - When the rasa containing more water reaches the liver and the spleen, it becomes red in colour due to the ranjak pitta. Then it is known as blood. The characteristics of prithvi, aap, tej, vayu and aakash in that order i e peculiar smell, liquidity, red colour, speed and ? are exhibited in blood. Hence blood is known as panchamahabhoutic. When the blood is washed away from a cloth and does not leave any stain on the cloth, it is termed as healthy blood ( defectless ). That is the main function of this dhatu.

Mansa (Muscular Tissue or flesh) - On the supporting blood, the fire in the muscular tissue operates in the mansvah strotra and this dhatu is produced. The warmth or heat of the vayu and tej is mixed up in the blood and it becomes thick. It gets ripened due to the fire of the mansa and takes the form of mansa. The cells and the muscles in the body are also forms of flesh. .. The cells do the act of covering and hence the organs are protected. The muscles bear the weight of the body. The joints move. All these movements are due to vyanvayu.

Med (Adipose Tissue)- On the supporting mansa (flesh), the fire in the med operates in medovah strota and the dhatu med is created. It strengthens the body.

Asthi (Bones) - On the panchmahabhootas in the supporting elements, the fire in the asthidhatu operates and creates roughness. This creates bones. Due to vayu , they can be porous. This function is carried on in asthivah strota. Due to this...

Majja (Bone Marrow) - Asthidhatu supporting majja gets operated upon by the fire in majja in majjavah strota. and majja dhatu is created. The .. in the holes in the bones is known as majja. The nature of it is different from the med...

Shukra (Generative Tissue) - Shukra dhatu is produced from majja due to uniting with fire. The origin of shukra dhatu is in shukradhar kala in shukravah strota all over the body. Though the testicles and the eggs are the main origins for this, actually shukra dhatu is produced all over the body in a miniscule form. It drizzles in the testicles and comes out through medhra. In a young age, it exists in invisible form and when the child comes of age, it becomes visible.

Female Shukr The shukra dhatu originating in the female body is termed as Aartava. There are two types of this :

1. The monthly aartava which is produced in the uterus each month, this is known as bahihpushpa. This is not useful for conceiving, but this is necessary to purify the uterus.
2. The other aartava originates in a tiny form It takes part in the unity by absorbing the shukra, it is termed as Antarpushpa.

Oj - The brightness or the excellent glow in the shukra dhatu, of all seven dhatus, is termed as oj. The main place of oj is the heart, but it occupies the entire body. It is the main basis of living and the state of the body depends on it. Pranas reside in it. It is actually representative of the characteristics of all seven dhatus and as such need not be considered as the eighth dhatu.

There are upadhatus for all sapta dhatus. They are as under :

Rasa - Stanya and Raj
Rakta - Kadara and Shira
Mansa - Vasaa and Twacha
Med - Snayu, Sandhibandha, Shira
Mal - These are of three types :

Purish - After the food has been fully digested, at the time of division of sarkitta, purish is produced by purishdharakarla in purishvah strota. According to the Charaka, the measure of it is 7 handfuls. Due to this, there is dharana of vayu and agni.

Mutra Urine) - According to Charaka, the measure is 4 handfuls.

Sweda (Perspiration) - This is mal of med. Due to this, the skin and hair become little moist.

Now, when the basic concept of tridosh, saptadhatu and their impurities is clear, we will consider the physical body. Ayurveda has clarified as under :

When friction is caused between the organs of the male and female body at the time of coitus, the vayu provocates the teja in the body. Due to the unity of teja and vayu, the shukra starts flowing, gets dislocated from its place and through the penis enters the vagina; there it gets united with aartava. Raj in the form of fire and shukra in the form of soma get united and the fetus is formed which moves to the uterus and stays there till the arrival of time to come out. Vaayu separates from this fetus, which is in the form of chaitanya, doshas, dhatus, mala and other organs. Teja does the work of digestion. Aap gives it moistness. Earth gives the form. When the grown fetus assumes hands, legs, tongue, ears, nose etc and other organs, then it gets the term body.

Ayurveda has considered the human body in four stages. First the shape of the body that is structural consideration of the body. In this, dhatus such as asthi and muscles ( mansa ) are considered. Then the prakriti of the body that means the internal processes of the body are thought of. Here, the processes of rasa, rakta, med, majja and shukra are considered. Then the vikruti, that means the disturbed rapport in the internal processes of the body. Here, all the diseases have been considered. Then nishkruti that means the process of examining the body with respect to the vikrutis. We will consider only the first two stages in this chapter ( because it is outside the purview of this book, to consider the later two stages of vikruti and nishkruti )

The main basis of the human body is the skeleton of the bones. All the parts of the body function due to the support of the Asthi (bones) belong to the prithvi principle and are the most hard and most durable part in the body. Even when the body is burnt on the pyre, all the bones do not get burnt away. Bones stay for a very long time, hence skeletons from thousands of years ago are still available.

While thinking in detail about the bones in a full-grown body, it should be done considering the six aspects of the body. Sushrut, who is the pioneer of the traditional anatomy, has stated these six aspects as under - Main part of the body i e the torso and head. Two hands, two legs are the four branches. The hands and the legs are considered as if the main part has branched out. Even when the branches are cut, the main tree remains alive, thus even if the hands and legs are cut, the body stays alive. This proves the appropriateness of the terms used in Ayurveda.

The upper and lower part of the body each have 30 bones, thus there are 120 bones. While considering the middle part of the body, first the spinal cord should be considered. It is made up of 33 vertebrae. They are joined to each other. The 7 vertebrae in the upper portion are considered of neck and then 12 of the chest. From the first vertebra of the chest ( i e the eighth vertebra ), the ribs start. They are termed as Parshuka or vakri. The cord is like a bamboo, thick at the base and goes on narrowing upwards. Like a bamboo, it is made up hollow. As the bamboo is hollow, the spine is also hollow and the cord passes through it.

In the head, there is a cavity made up of eight flat bones, in which the brain is placed. Due to this cave, the brain is protected securely. The bones below the bones on both the sides are known as Shankasthi. They are very thin and from behind them a big blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain, passes. Hence, a blow on this part can damage the brain severely and there are chances that person may die.

In front of this cave, there are 14 bones of the face. The cavity of the ear also has a chain of small bones and the perception of the sound waves is carried through this chain to the nervous fibres.

Thus, the full-grown body has in all 206 bones, according to Sushrut 300 and according to Charaka 360 bones. The bones are divided into six types.

Nalikasthi - These are long like tubes and hollow from within. They are stuffed with majja. Till the age of 20 years, the colour of this is red, then it turns yellow. These types of bones are in the hands and legs.

Kapalasthi - These are flat in nature. The above and below layer is separated and hollowed parts are made. Red majja is filled in it.

Valayasthi - These are round in shape. The ribs of the chest are of this type.

Tarunashthi - These are soft in nature. They are mainly in between joint of vertebrae, two vertebrae there is a circle of tarunasthi. Hence, any jolt to the body, till it reaches the brain becomes mild.

Ruchakasthi - The teeth which are different from all the other bones in the body are covered under this. They are 28 or 32 in all.

Aanvashti - The bones which are smaller and irregular in size and which do not fit under any of the above category fall in this. These bones have fat with blood.

The entire bone system is divided into two main parts, nails and teeth is whitish part. Since they do not have a layer of the skin, it is termed as bahyakankal. These bones can be used for detecting disease. All other bones are covered with skin, they are covered in antahkankal.

All the bones in the body are joined with each other. These joints are termed as sandhi. Sandhi are of two types. Sthir or achal. The sandhis of the skull fall under this type. The bones in the jaw and the teeth have sthir sandhi(fixed joints). They cannot move relative to each other. All other joints are chal or cheshthavant. They can be moved in a limited manner with respect to each other.

Generally all the bones coming under chal joints are covered with tarunashti. They are elastic in nature and can withstand the pushes. Above these tarunashti, there is another layer, which covers the joints like a bag, which is termed as sandhikosh. In this sandhikosh, above tarunashti, there is a double thin layer like a bag. Substances such as shleshak, shleshma exist in it. When the joints are moved, these are used as grease. When this substance reduces, then the joints start creaking while moving and there is pain.

In Ayurveda, there are eight types of sandhis :

Kor - Joints in Finger, wrist, ankle, elbow.

Ulukhal - The joint of the thigh, joint at he roots of teeth.

Samugad - Joints near the shoulder, anus, reproductive organs, hips etc.

Pratar - Joints like neck, vertebrae of the back etc.

Tunnasevani - Joints of the kapalashthi at face, waist etc.

Vaayastund - Joints near the chin on both the sides.

Mandal - Round - joints at heart, eyes etc.

Sankhavarta - Having circles - Joints at ears, shankha ( inner ear ) etc.

If the number of joints are considered, each branch has 17, that all branches have 68, and at other places 83, i e in all 210 joints described in Ayurveda.

Muscles join all the bones with each other and the movement is made with expansion and contraction of the muscles.
The muscles are of four types :

Pratanvarti Muscles - Four branches and in all joints

Vruta - Kandara - All round muscles

Sushira - Contracting muscles in big intestine

Pruthul - Flat muscles - muscles at side, chest, back, head etc

If the number of muscles is seen, then in four branches ( 600 ), 150 in each branch, ? 70, at other places 230, thus in all there are 900 muscles in the body.

Now, we are acquainted with bones, joints and muscles, we will see the views of Ayurveda regarding five sense organs and five a? organs.



Five sense organs

Chakshurindriyam ( Eyes ) - The eyeball is round, like cow's udder and with panchmahabhootas. The flesh, blood, black circle, white circle, tear ducts are made up of prithvi, teja, vayu, jala and aakash. The white circle in the eyes is made up of the of kapha.

The entire eyesight originates from these too. Naturally, eyes are with concentrated gaze, with clear features, healthy and bright. The eye ball is 2/3 rd finger length wide, and two and half centimeters in diameter. 1/3 of the eye is the black ball and the real eyesight is 1/9 th of the black ball. In an eye, there are 5 circles, 6 joints and 6 layers. The eyes of human beings having vat, pitta and kapha constitution are with unstable gaze, reddish and white. The pranvayu carried the perception of the sight to the mind and intelligence. Udanvayu reflects the mental emotions through the eyes. Vyanvayu is responsible for the blinking action. The pitta in the eyes receives the sight perception. The tarpak kapha in the head keeps all the organs happy and healthy. The impurities are thrown out through the eyes.

Shravanendriya -The ears originate from the principle of aakash. The natural ears are thick, broad with a flat seat, well joined ear lobes, big holes, equal in proportion and grow downwards and are folded on the backside. Big, fleshy and hairy ears are indicative of long life. Ears are four fingers long.

Ears are the place of vat. The wave sounds are grasped by the ears and are carried to the mind and intelligence through the word carrying vessels. This action is done by pranvayu. Ears have an outside opening and the impurities are thrown out of it.

Ghranendriy The nose originates from the principle of earth. A straight, big nostril, breathing with pleasure, receiving the smells properly, with the tip slightly pointed downwards is the natural nose. It is four fingers in length. There are three bones, 1 joint, and cells in the nose. It is a place of kapha. To smell any smell kapha is necessary. The action of breathing is through pran and udanvayu.

Sparshendriy As the fat skims up when the milk is heated, similarly seven skins are generated. They are as follows :

Aavbhasini
Lohita
Shweta
Taamra
Vedini
Rohini
Mansdhara

The sense of touch and perceptions are carried to the mind and intelligence through pran and udan vayu. The reflex action is due to vyanvayu. Due to udan vayu the original colour and the color of the skin is preserved. The health of the skin depends on the digestion due to saman and the regular excretions due to apana.

The oj is reflected through the colour of the skin. As the dhatu shukra is omnipresent, it is present in the skin too. The impurities of the med i e sweat and the impurities of majja are thrown out of the skin. Also, the impurities of the bones i e nails and hair also get out of the skin.

Rasanendriy The tongue is an organ which is based on jal principle. It originates from of the kapha, mansa and blood. Tongue is out of ten, the natural tongue is long, wide, smooth, thin without any defects and pinkish in colour.

The tongue is a place of bodhak kapha and also of sense of food. The action of the bodhak kapha is helped by the pranvayu and the sense of food and the normal sense of touch is carried by the pranvayu. Udan vayu gets the work of talking through the tongue.



Panchakarmedriye

Hands -

The tree of the body has these two upper branches and these are the main action doing organs. In the hands, everything from the shoulders to the fingers is included. So also, nails, fingers, palm, wrist, arm etc. The entire skin of the hands has some hair in more or less proportion. Only the palms do not grow any hair. From the arm to the fingers, there are various joints, so movement in many directions is possible.

Legs -

Like hands, these are the branches turned below to the tree like body. They also cover nails, fingers, soles, cartilage, bones etc. Many movements can be done through legs though not so many as the hands can do. The legs should not be too fat or too thin, they should be equal. As the entire body weight is on the legs, the bones in it are big and the muscles more powerful.

Tongue -

The tongue is an organ of sense as also an organ of action. The description of the tongue is covered while describing it as organ of action, hence it need not be repeated.

Anus - The last part of the food track is known as anus. This organ carries out the work of throwing the left over portion of the food after it has been digested out of the body. This is controlled by the apanvayu.

Penis -

This is an organ with opening outside and it throws out the urine and also semen.

Mind -

After considering the five sensory perception organs and five organs of action, it is natural to consider the eleventh organ i e mind. The mind perceives the knowledge through the five sensory perception organs and then coaxes the sensory perception organs and organs of action to do their work, hence it is termed as organs of action. To carry out any action or to sense any knowledge, mind is necessary. The two contradictory characteristics of mind are the sense of knowledge or absence of knowledge e g while viewing any substance, if the mind is present, then the knowledge can be gained. When the knowledge is being received, if the mind is not present at ears and nose, then the sound and smell cannot be perceived. The two aspects of the mind are minuteness and unity. Mind cannot simultaneously relate to two different organs at a time, hence two actions cannot be performed at a time. Contemplating, thinking, guessing, goal, memory whatever knowledgeable substances are there, all are part of the subject of mind.

Intelligence -

Organs grasp the subject in the presence of mind and then the mind starts comparing then the action of the intelligence starts. It considers the pluses and minuses and then behaves according to the orders of the intelligence. It always questions whether a particular thing is right or wrong. Then the intelligence which can think comes forward and decides, hence the intelligence is termed as determinative.

Till now, we considered the shape of the body. Bone structure, muscles, joint, five action organs, mind and intelligence. Now we will consider the internal processes within the body i e the prakruti. To carry out a particular work, groups of different organs work together. The groups of these organs are termed as vyuha. There are five such vyuha in the body - 1. Digestion 2. Breathing 3.Blood Circulation 4 Majja and 5.Urination We have studied all these in detail in the earlier chapter. Now we will see how the Ayurveda has described their structure and functions.

Digestion -

This is a continuous path in the body starting at mouth and ending at anus. It is a very important path. It is termed as maha strotas. The starting is at mouth and its length from the beginning to the end is five fingers. Due to the secretion of bodhal kapha in the mouth, the food also turns sticky and is sent to the esophagus. At abnormal times, udanvayu works at bringing up the food and also bringing out the kapha doshas. Mouth contains two lips, teeth, tongue, the small part behind the tongue.

The guard at the door of the mahastrotas, i e lips should be such that when they are closed, the teeth should not be visible. They should be red. Their length is four ? they are controlled by pran, udan and vyan vayu. Teeth are .. organs and the height of each teeth is two ? Half of the teeth is covered with flesh, which is known as dantaveshta. The teeth for the second time are generally 32. The natural teeth should be white, ? and equal.

The upper portion of the mouth is known as ? it is a place of kapha. It is kaphamansdharit and there is udakvah strotas there.

The place where the food pipe is joined to the mouth is known as kantha or saptapath. There are seven ways at that place ( mouth, food pipe, breath pipe, two nasal openings and two eustacian tubes ) the food in the mouth travels into ? with a broad perspective, the portion above the navel till the mouth is termed s : ... the doshas functional over here are kedak kapha, pachak pitta and samanvayu. Udanvayu gives .. to the ?

The portion of maha strotas between .. and .. is termed as small intestiness. It is .. organs. It is mainly the place of pachak pitta and samanvayu. A... is mainly found in this organ. Pachak pitta is generated by ... this is termed as agni. In small intestines, digestion, urine, faeces and sweat .. and the... are carried out.

The last portion of the large intestines is termed as anus. It is ... organ and it is made up of blood, kapha, mansa with the help of vayupitta. According to the Charaka, there are two parts uttar guda and adhar guda. The faeces are stored in uttar guda and the adhar guda excretes them. As the head is termed as the child of the body so also the anus as the vessels at both these places help to grow the body...

There are four layers , very thin and oily in appearance which bind ?. These are known as vapa. It is the main place of meda vah strota. In the abdominal cavity, below the heart on the left hand side is spleen and right hand side there is liver. Both are .. organs and are made up of blood. The main dosha here is ranjakpitta. Hence, the fluids in the liver and spleen get redness. If necessary, all other places are supplied with blood from here.

The entire process of getting the necessary ingredients for the growth of the body, which are available in the nature in their natural state, from the mouth into the body and their conversion into substances which can be assimilated into the body is known as digestion. The body made up of panchamahbhootas, when takes the diet made up of panchmahabhootas which is digested well due to the panchamhabhoutic agni in the body, it helps grow each bhoota. The digestion is of two types. Gross digestion and subtle digestion. In gross digestion, the conversion of the food is into body supporting fluids, vat, and impurities such as faeces and urine. The fluid is absorbed by vessels and ? the dhatu and agnis work on this fluid and then dhatus, upadhtus and the balanced impurities are formed. This is called as subtle digestion.

The work of digestion is done through agni. The state of the body depends on the state of this agni. Ayurveda has stated that " Yavad agni tavad jivitam " This means till the time the agni is ignited, that time only the life continues. The agni is of two types. The fire in the stomach that causes gross digestion and the fire in the dhatus, which causes subtle digestion. The place or home of the agni is small intestines. It originates form the .. in the small intestines with the help of pitta. That part of mahastrotas, which digests the food, is known as small intestines. It ? the non ripe food and lets put the ripened one. If the fire is debilitating, then the intestines becomes weak and .. starts letting out the non ripened food. It stretches till the beginning of the big intestines.

The fire in the stomach supports the health, semen; oja, five of the panchamahabhootas and seven dhatus, hence is is considerd as greatest.

Gross digestion -

When the food is out into the mouth, due to the taste and the smell, bodhak kapha starts flowing into the mouth and there is kledak kapha in the... This flowing is due to prana and udan vayu. The food tastes sweet due to the bodhak kapha. Due to the kledak kapha in the..., the food gets diluted. Also, the action of the bodhak kapha which comes from the mouth alongwith the food continues in the... this sweetening action creates kapha in the form of dhatu which has .. and which is cold in the... In fact, it is torn out of food. Here, the food is not digested completely.

The first part of the small intestines completes the division of sarkitta and absorption. Then the food goes into the third stage i e... Here, due to the pitta, the food turns bitter and gets into the form of ball and the vayu element in the nature of kitta is formed. The process of sarkitta division and generation of vayu is carried in the earlier part of ? the later part of the ? there are... prominently. the liquid part of the kitta is absorbed into the rasa in the mahastrotas. The other part is stored in the ? then due to the action of the apanvayu it is thrown out of the ..naus.


Subtle digestion -


The fluid generated out of the food particles due to the process of the pachakani is known as vipak. Inthis vipaka, there are sar elemetns of food, kpaha, potta in the nature of dhatus which are generated in the mahastrotas, vayu in the form of kitta and impurities. The vipak of sweet and salty food items is sweet. For... it is... and for bitter, pungent and ? it is pungent. This diet juice is absorbed by veins and blood vessels, and due to the vyanvayu is sent across the veins all over the body. The fires in the formof dhatus residing in the body process that flows and creates dhatus such as rasa, rakta, mamans, meda, ashtimajja and shukra. Upadhatus such as kandar, shira, vasa, muscles, skin, .., ... and in females in addition to the above, rasya and stanya are also created. So also, pitta, kapha, karna, akshi,nalika, aasya, prajanan mala, hair, smashru, loma, nail, nasal and sweat etc impurities are also generated.

The seven dhatus are created by conversion of one another. From rasa to virya, all dhatus are created from... Hence, they get stronger day by day. According to Sushruta, to generate the following dhatus from the diet takes the following period : Rasa 1 day, rakta - 5 days, mansa - 10 days, meda - 15 days, asthi - 20 days, shukra- 30 days. This cycle goes on continuosly.


Breathing -


Ayurveda has described the digestion vyuha very minutely and in detail as compared to other vyuhas. While describing the structure and the function of the digestion vyuha, a typicality of the ayurveda is found there, which is absent in other vyuhas. Also, the description of the other vyuhas is not independently made as description of vyuhas. It is done in different chapters part by part. However, all the processes have been described in the language of ayurvedas. We have studied these processes in detail in earlier chapters, hence we will not go into the detail, and however we will just understand the ayurvedic view here.

While describing the vyuha for breathing, ayurveda has described in detail, the pran vayu which commonly is present in the vyuha and which does the entire action in the vyuha.

According to ayurveda, there are two types of pranvayus - gross type and subtle type. The gross one moves through nose, throat, kantha, and lungs and ultimately tot he heart. There is pranvaha strotas in the chest. The origin of it is heart, veins, and mahastrotas. Here, heart should be construed as two lungs. The action, which moves pranvayu, thus, is known as breathing.

While describing the subtle pranvayu, it is not manifest, that means it should be understood from its action. The veins and arteries from the navel go all over the body. They support the dhatus by combining them with the pranvayu. The pranvayu at the navel goes through the torso through the kantha, i e it goes into the head at the seat of the brain. There a big hollow is present. ( mahadaakash , brahmarandhra , there it drinks the chandramrut and comes back again at the navel and causes all the breathing actions. That means it controls the breathing system.

In short, one can say that the vayu inhaled through the breathing process is gross pranvayu and vayu controlling the breathing process is subtle pranvayu.

Ayurveda has described the process in detail, but we will not go into those details.

Vyhua for blood circulation - there are ten places in the body, on which the prana depends. Heart is one of them. Vagbhata has clarified its position as under : between the two breasts and the :.. and ? in the middle ?. There are three gunas residing there, sattva, rajas, and tamas. Sushrut has stated that... If it is wounded, there is immediate death. There is a lung on either side. It is like a lotus whose mouth is below. Sushrut has described it in this fashion. Heart is considered as the chaitanya place of prana. Chaitanya or jiva is that which is the unity of body, organs, soul, mind and which assumes the body and senses the knowledge through perception. This chaitanya resides at heart.

Heart is the place for dhatu oja and rasa. The ras and the blood are circulated all over the body through the veins starting from the heart. The dhatu rasa, is thrown towards ten sides from the heart as the waves spread thought he words or the water or like fire waves.

Generation of urine - When the food is digested in the former part of the small intestiness, the later part does the function of division of sarkitta. Kitta means vat, urine and faeces. The division of faeces is done in the .. in the large intestiness. That is ? the water and other impurities in the urine are absorbed into the fluids in the intestines. The other kleda originating in the body is mixed with that. Then the aam dhatu coming from the esophagus, the water and other impurities in the urine, kleda etc are filtered through rasa and blood by ?. That is known as urine. It is carried through ?located at the back to the ?. As the .. is created at the time of division of sarkitta, it is essential to have .. of samanvayu.

The more detailed description of .. and .. is given by ayurvdea , but it is similar to what we have studied in the previous chapter. It is only described in the terms of ayurveda. It is not correct to give the same information again only in terms of ayurvedic language and make this chapter lengthy. Hence, the chapter ends here.