Diabetes can be described as the bitter story of sw eet sugar. Efforts tolimitthe excessive use of sugar as a sweeter are being made all over the world but have not significantly succeeded. It is now becoming evident that Yoga, which is capable of bringing an overall improvement in human life, is a lso capable of overcoming a disease like diabetes, provided all pancreatic cell s have not already been destroyed. There are many different levels of diabetic disease .
We often hear patients whose diabetes is newly dete cted saying, “My blood sugar was checked recently and a high level of gluc ose was detected in the report diagnosing diabetes. Now this disease will accompan y me life long. The doctor has prescribed medicines which I will need to take for the rest of my life, and warned to strictly avoid sugar.” Of course some level of glu cose in the blood is perfectly healthy and glucose detected in blood need not nece ssarily be diabetes.
Our bodies are comprised of billions (!) of minute cells. Each cell is a living organism. Each cell carries out its own function co nsistently and requires energy for doing so. A combination of glucose and oxygen produ ce the energy required for the functioning of these cells. The cell extracts both these elements from the blood itself. When the cell is required to increase its activity, it extracts more glucose and oxygen from the blood. All the cells require these element s and in a healthy body a balance of both these elements is maintained. Amongst these ox ygen is taken from the air by breathing and absorbed into the blood. This process is carried out in the lungs.
Digested starch and sugar is transformed in the bod y into glucose, which is again absorbed into the blood. T amount of glucose in the blood can be tested in a laboratory. Levels of glucose vary during the day. It is greater two hours after intake of food. It is lowest when the stomach is empty.
A standard level of blood glucose has been determin ed after testing the levels of lakhs of glucose found in healthy people. The st andard levels are: Fasting - 80 mg/100cc, and that measured two hours of after lunc h (Post Prandial Blood Glucose) - 140mg/100cc. These are considered the natural level s of blood glucose. Of course the levels may vary with the kind of diet taken. That m eans if the lunch was loaded with sweets, glucose levels will naturally shoot up. If on the other hand, lunch consisted of less starch and sugar, glucose levels may fall down to 100. Hence lunch taken before testing blood glucose levels must be one’s regular and balanced lunch.
The amount of glucose in the blood increases when t here is higher sugar or sweet intake. This increases the density of blood, thereby decreasing the speed of circulation of blood and creating stress on the hea rt. The excess amount of glucose is stored in the liver. The excess amount of glucose i s utilized when the body requires extra amount of glucose for increased activity. Whe n the storage of glucose in the liver exceeds its limits, the excess glucose is exc reted through urine with the help of kidneys, thus maintaining the glucose level in the blood. The metabolism of glucose is carried out by the nervous system in coordination w ith the endocrine glands. The glucose level can remain elevated permanently if an y damage is caused to this system. This is the state of diabetes. Generally, a person having fasting sugar above 100 and PP sugar above 160 can be said to be suffering from diabetes.
Anothermajor factor that contributes to the metabol ism of glucose is Insulin. The beta cells in the pancreas produce a stimulator named insulin, which is absorbed by blood. The function of insulin is to transport g lucose from blood to each cell. Cells cannot absorb glucose directly from blood without t he aid of insulin.
An increased requirement of glucose by the cells is satisfied by the production 49 of extra amounts of insulin. In a steam engine a fireman is necessary to add coa l into the boiler of the steam engine. The operation of the steam engine would not possible without him. Similarly, insulin transports the glucose from the blood into the cells. If enough insulin is not produced for any reason, the cells will not receive glucose and the glucose will stay in the blood, increasing the level of blood glucose. T his is the main manifestation of diabetes.
In the body of a diabetic patient the cells demand glucose when they need to perform activity. But they cannot perform these act ivitiesif they do not receive glucose due to insufficient insulin. As a result, d iabetic patients cannot exert themselves physically. They get fatigued very fast and their activity slows down. The cells keep demanding blood glucose and in an attemp t to satisfy this demand, the patient gets hungry frequently. He eats more food t o satisfy his hunger. As a result the level of blood glucose increases. The glucose is no t received by the cells and remains in the blood due to insufficient insulin. This incr eases the density of blood, reducing the rate of circulation. It thus becomes necessary to throw away this excess glucose through the kidneys. Patients with this condition have to pass urine frequently and in much larger quantities. This reduces the water leve l in the blood thus increasing thirst.
The primary symptoms of diabetes are weakness, exce ss hunger, excess thirst, and passing large quantities of urine frequently. I t is thus essential to limit the levels of blood glucose. Otherwise, adverse consequences o f increased blood glucose can be experienced. Diabetes affects the skin, the anus, the urinary tract or the vagina. It can even be a cause of death. The walls of blood vesse ls become thick and stiff. This adversely affects the blood supply especially to th e feet. It also affects the function of the eyes leading to blindness. There may be a swell ing on the feet due to increased load on the kidneys. At times, the kidneys may stop functioning totally. In fact, the elevated levels of blood glucose affect the functio ning of practically all the organs. It is hence very essential to maintain levels of blood glucose in the normal range.
There are many medicines which function to maintain normal glucose levels. Insulin is injected into some patients. These medic ines or injections have to be taken life long as they only maintain glucose levels in t he normal range rather than cure the patient’s diabetes. It is well known that this trea tment is not enough to start regeneration of insulin in the body. However, there is evidence that some Yogic processes are capable of regenerating production of insulin in the patient’s body.
One must be aware of the limitations of Yoga when o ne states that Yoga is beneficial in curing diabetes. As we know diabetes is ‘a reduced quantity of production of insulin by the beta cells in the panc reas.’ In some patients, the beta cells may be absent or the beta cells are incapable of pr oducing insulin right from birth. This is called Juvenile Diabetes. These patients ne ed to be injected insulin everyday. Yoga will not work in case of those patients whose beta cells are dead or are incapable of producing insulin. The percentage of s uch patients is only about 4-5%. Yoga is helpful to the other 95% of diabetic patien ts.
These other patients do have beta cells present in their bodies but the amount of insulin produced by them is not sufficient. As a result the cells do not receive glucose, decelerating their rate of functioning and increasing the amount of blood glucose in the body. The cells starve, while the de nsity of blood increases, causing hypertension and heart trouble. Yoga enhances the e fficiency of beta cells of the pancreas in such patients and they start producing sufficient insulin in the body. This effect is not known to be possible with any kind of medication.
The root cause of depleted production of insulin by the cells also varies. 50 Reduction in efficiency of the beta cells is one of the reasons as discussed above. Other causes include raw material to produce insuli n is not received by the beta cells, the beta cells do not receive sufficient signals to produce enough insulin, there is damage in the glands transmitting these signals, th e hypothalamus that sends signals to the pituitary glands gets damaged, or the nervou s system that notes the requirement of insulin is damaged. Diabetes may occur due to an y of these causes. Yoga treats diabetes in such a way that it helps to overcome al l these shortcomings that are responsible for the emergence of the disease.
A patient may also suffer from diabetes despite bei ng in a physically sound condition. The cause lies in the psychology of that patient rather than his physiology. One of the many consequences of mental stress is th e emergence of diabetes. A disorder in the Manomaya Kosha creates diabetes in the Annamaya Kosha. Medicines are not capable of reaching the Manomaya Kosha and hence it is not possible for medicines to cure diabetes. Some processes in Yoga are, however, capable of curing disorders in the Manomaya Kosha, and yoga can help such diabetic patients.
Diabetes can be caused by any of the factors discus sed above, and it is often difficult to trace the exact cause. It is only poss ible to know that the level of blood glucose is too high, or that the production of insu lin is too low. But this is detected only after the onset of diabetes. Hence when it com es to Yogic treatment, the practices need to treat whatever may be the cause o f diabetes. There is no treatment other than Yoga capable of treating all the causes from reduced efficiency of beta cells to nervous system disorders. This is because Yoga affects not only the body,but also all the five Koshas. The various Yogic process es to be practiced for the cure of diabetes are Yogasanas, Pranayama, cleansing proces ses and contemplation.
Yogasanas, as we’ve seen, are different postures of the body. If performed briskly, they can be regarded as exercise. Sun Salu tation can be performed in an energetic way, making it into an exercise. This kin d of exercise increases the requirement of oxygen and glucose by the cells. Inc rease in the production of insulin takes place to meet this requirement, and signals t o do so are generated in the brain with greater intensity. The rate of production of i nsulin may increase with the increased intensity of these signals. Sun salutatio ns are hence included in the treatment process for diabetes. But the patient mus t be capable of performing the Sun Salutations briskly.
The main component of Yogasanas is that they be per formed with stability and in comfort. Deliberate relaxation can help attain t his state. If the voluntary muscles are relaxed deliberately while a posture is being m aintained the tensions on these muscles are transferred to the internal organs and glands, thus improving their functioning. In the case of diabetes, where the pan creas is unable to produce sufficient insulin, deliberate relaxation of muscles attained in particular asanas creates positive tension on the pancreas, thus improving the product ion of insulin. These asanas include- Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana, Ardha Matsyendr asana, Yoga Mudra type-2, Pavanmuktasana, Sarvangasana, Halasana, and Matsyas ana. Attaining stability in these asanas for a period of time and deliberately relaxing in the position can give good results.
Cleansing Processes play a significant role in the remedy of Diabetes. Experience shows that processes such as Jalaneti, V aman, Kapalbhati and Shankha 51 Prakshalana help in increasing the production of in sulin in the body thus reducing the glucose level in the blood. Regular practice brings about internal cleansing of the body thus enhancing the functional efficiency of th e organs. This results in an improvement in digestion of food, which in turn hel ps improvement in digestion of sugar in the food.
Vaman helps in bringing about some additional contr ol of the autonomous nervous system. This results in improving the funct ion of this nervous system with respect to the production of insulin.
The abdominal pressure created during exhalation in Kapalbhati helps in improving the efficiency of beta cells in the pancr eas.
The process of Shankha Prakshalana is excellent for a diabetic patient if s/he is capable of performing it. To get the full benefit o f the procedure the patient must practice the asanas in Shanka Prakshalana for eight days before performing the complete Shanka Prakshalana. S/he must then perform Laghu Shanka Prakshalan for a further 40 days to complete the procedure. The leve l of blood glucose falls significantly with the practice of Shankha Prakshal ana. The diabetic patient should not take any insulin injections before the practice . In fact, the patient may even have to take sugar externally. It has been observed that the practice of Laghu Shankha Prakshalana ends some patient’s requirement of medi cation. This practice increases the generation of insulin and the patient can then get rid of the disease with regular practice of certain asanas and Pranayama. The proce ss of Shankha Prakshalana can be carried out once every six months, and diabetic pat ients are recommended to perform it regularly.
Naadishodhan Pranayama is helpful in this case. But it has been observed that Bhramari and Bhastrika are also beneficial. All kin ds of Pranayamas must of course include the trio of Bandhas along with breath reten tion. Hence before practicing Pranayama, scientific practice of deep breathing, r apid breathing, Jalandhar Bandha, Uddiyana Bandha and Moolha Bandha is very essential . Hence consistent and prolonged practice of these processes under expert guidance is necessary. Not much research is found on the effects of these processes and hence it is difficult to state what and how do they affect. But experimentation an d observation leads to the inference that these kinds of Pranayama are helpful as they create pressure on the pancreas, improving their functioning.
The meaning of contemplation here is the practice o f concentration. The stability attained through the practice of concentr ation can be useful to cure diabetes. And as we know, defects at the mental level are the root cause of many diseases and mental condition is noteworthy in cases of diabetes too. Hence the mental stability attained through the practice of concentration is d efinitely helpful. This practice starts from concentrating on Aum initially and later conce ntrating on the pancreas as the object of support.
It is quite easy to concentrate on Aum. The power o f concentration developed by concentrating on Aum has to then be utilized to concentrate on the pancreas. The patient has to be provided with complete knowledge of this gland - its perfect position, its size,and its shape - for concentratin g on the pancreas. A regular practice of concentration for 10-15 minutes daily will be us eful. The patient will have to be well instructed and guided for the practice. The th erapist must do this skillfully. If the 52 therapist is unable to guide properly, the patient will not be able to concentrate acutely and the process will ultimately not help the patien t.
The mental tensions created due to various reasons affect the pancreas through the medium of hypothalamus and pituitary glands thu s reducing its efficiency. This is the significant cause of diabetes. An easy and effe ctive way to release these mental tensions is Yoga Nidra. The resolution made during Yoga Nidra that, ‘I am definitely getting cured of diabetes’ brings the patient neare r to liberation from the disease.
The list of yogic processes that are beneficial for the treatment diabetes is very long. These processes have to be practiced for a lo ng duration and many more processes have to be practiced as a basic preparati on for practicing the main course of treatment. It must be noted that it is not possible for the patient to perform these processes on his own referring to books. Expert gui dance is a must. A complete course for Liberation from Diabetes is illustrated below for therapists guiding the patients. This is a ten week course and the list of new processes to be taught daily is given in reference to each week. Regular revision o f the previously taught processes is mandatory and practice for one hour daily is also n ecessary.
Monday- Prayers, Standing Position, Preparatory Mov ements Types 1-3, Supine Position, Shavasana, Tadagasana, hand movements exe rcise-1, Sitting Position: Relaxed state, Swastikasana, gentle breathing, deep breathing, Sharanagat Mudra, Prayers.
Tuesday- Prayers, Preparatory Movements exercise-4 & 5, leg movements exercise-1, Tadagasana, deep breathing, chanting of Aum. Wednesday- Prayers, neck movements exercise 1 & 2, hand movements exercise-2, leg movements exercise-2, Tadasana- Teeryak Tadasan a, Bhramari (with exhalation), Parvatasana.
Thursday- Prayers, Preparatory Movements Types 10, chin movements exercise-1, leg movements exercise-3, hand movements exercise-3, Va jrasana, shoulder movements exercise-1, Sulabha Pavanmuktasana- both legged, Ka tichakrasana (Standing Position).
Friday- Prayers, chin movements exercise- 2, Prone Position, Sahajahasta Bhunjagasana, Sulabha Pavanmuktasana- single legged , shoulder movements exercise- 2, stomach movements exercise-1-2, Vriksh asana.
Sunday- Chanting of Aum for 30 minutes.
Monday- Preparatory Movements exercise-6, 9, 10, As anas of Shankha Prakshalana, Tadasana- Teeryak Tadasana.
Tuesday- Preparatory Movements exercise-11, 12, Asa nas of Shankha Prakshalana- Katichakrasana, Teeryak Bhujangasana.
Wednesday- Asanas of Shankha Prakshalana- Udarakars hana, Kaakpada.
Thursday- Makarasana, Padmasana, Revision of Asanas of Shankha Prakshalana.
Friday- Parvatasana, Sharanagat Mudra, Revision of Asanas of Shankha Prakshalana.
Saturday- Positions of Sun Salutation, Vrikshasana, Revision of Asanas of Shankha Prakshalana.
Sunday- Prayers, Ganapati Atharvasheersha, Pranayam a- Jalaneti.
Revision of Asanas of Shankha Prakshalana must be t aken daily in this week.
Monday- Positions of Sun Salutation with breathing rules and chanting of Surya mantras.
Tuesday- Sun Salutation, Saralhasta (straight-armed) Bhujangasana, Ardha (partial) Shalabhasana.
Wednesday- Sun Salutation (12+2), Uttanpadasana (Co mplete and partial).
Thursday- Vakrahasta (Crooked armed) Bhujangasana, Shalabhasana (Complete).
Friday- Vakrasana type-1, Ardha (Partial) Pashchimo ttanasana.
Saturday- Dhanurasana, Vakrasana type-2, Deep breat hing- 1: 0: 1.5 Ratio.
Sunday- Prayers, chanting of Aum 108 times, Contemp lation- 5 minutes, Vaman, Shankha Prakshalana (Complete process).
Monday- Vipareet Karani, Padmasana Yogamudra type-1 , Samaasana.
Tuesday- Naukasana types 1 & 2, Padmasana Yogamudra type-2, Vajrasana.
Wednesday- Laghu Shankha Prakshalana, Vajrasana Yog amudra types 1 & 2, Baddhapadmasana, Ardha Matsyendrasana.
Thursday- Laghu Shankha Prakshalana, Sarvangasana- Matsyasana, Vajrasana Yogamudra types 2.
Friday- Laghu Shankha Prakshalana, Utthit Padmasana , Halasana, Pashchimottanasana
Saturday- Laghu Shankha Prakshalana, Trikonasana, A shwini Mudra, Deep breathing- 1: 0: 2 Ratio.
Sunday- Prayers (As previous), Contemplation- 10 mi nutes, Vaman, Laghu Shankha Prakshalana. (Start with Laghu Shankha Prakshalana from Wednesday in this week and continue to take practice of it up to the 10th week).
Monday- Aakarna Dhanurasana type-1, Fast breathing types 1-3.
Tuesday- Aakarna Dhanurasana type-2, Veerasana, Fas t breathing types 4-5.
Wednesday- Pavanmuktasana, Fast breathing typ-6.
Sunday- Prayers, Contemplation (With pancreas as ob ject of support). Perform Laghu Shankha Prakshalana daily and Vaman t hrice in this week.
Monday- Preparatory Movements, Advanced Study- Vajr asana Yogamudra- 5 minutes, Deep breathing 1:0:1 ratio – 10 minutes.
Tuesday - Sun Salutation, All types of Bhujangasana , Padmasana Yogamudra type-1 (5 minutes) Advanced Study- Shalabhasana, Dhanurasa na.
Wednesday- Padmasana Yogamudra type-2 (5 minutes), Advanced Study- Uttanpadasana, Vipareet Karani, Halasana, Deep brea thing- 10 minutes.
Thursday- Ardha Matsyendrasana 5 minutes, Advanced Study- Pashchimottanasana (Complete and Partial), Sarvangasana, Deep breathin g- 10 minutes.
Friday- Sun Salutation- 25, Shavasana- 15 minutes.
Saturday- Trikonasana- 2 minutes, Veerasana- 2 minu tes.
Sunday- Prayers- Ganapati Atharvasheersha, Chanting of Aum- 15 minutes, Contemplation (With pancreas as object of support). Perform Laghu Shankha Prakshalana daily and Vaman t hrice in this week.
Monday- Niralamba Bhujangasana, Parivarta Trikonasa na, Agnisar, Deep breathing 1:0:2 ratio (with single nostril at a time).
Tuesday- Ardhachakrasana, Jalandhar Bandha with Pad masana as the initial position.
Wednesday- Ardhapadmasana, Kukkutasana, Moola Bandh a.
Thursday- Sheershasana, Uddiyana Bandha.
Friday- Asanas involved in Sun Salutation.
Saturday- Revision, Deep breathing 1:0:2 ratios (Ci rculatory breathing).
Sunday- Prayers, Cleansing Process- Jalaneti, Conte mplation (With pancreas as object of support). Perform Laghu Shankha Prakshalana daily and Vaman t hrice in this week.
Monday- Niralamba Shalabhasana, Karnapeedanasana, B hraamari (exhalation only).
Tuesday- Dhanurasana, Vistrit Pada Halasana, Kapalb hati.
Wednesday- Sankatasana, Uddiyana Bandha with Padmas ana as initial position.
Thursday- Ekpadahastasana (Standing Position), Nasa gra Drishti with Padmasana as initial position.
Friday- Garbhasana, Chakrasana (Supine Position).
Saturday- Naadishuddhi Pranayama (With trio of Band has) 1:1:2 ratio.
Sunday- Prayers, Cleansing Process- Vaman Dhauti, C ontemplation (With pancreas as object of support). Perform Laghu Shankha Prakshalana daily and Vaman t wice in this week.
Monday- Ekpada Hastasana (Sitting Position), Meruda ndasana.
Tuesday- Bhraamari (while inhalation).
Wednesday- Siddhasana, Utkatasana.
Thursday- Tolaangulaasana, Paadaangushthasana, Sinh asana.
Friday- Ugrasana (Standing Position), Bhramari- Bhr aamari (in association).
Saturday- Bhraamari (with trio of Bandhas)
Sunday- Concentration of Aum, Cleansing Process- Ja laneti & Vaman Dhauti. Perform Laghu Shankha Prakshalana daily and Vaman t wice in this week.
(Stop performing Laghu Shankha Prakshalana in this week).
Monday- Ugrasana (Sitting Position).
Tuesday- Garudasana, Bhraamari Pranayama.
Wednesday- Mridanga Bandha.
Thursday- Hansaasana, Bhasrika Pranayama.
Friday- Ekpada Shirasana.
Saturday- Ujjayi Pranayama
Sunday- Concentration of Aum, Vaman- once.
Perform Yoga Nidra personally using cassette or CD.
The patient must be checked once in a fortnight and get the doses adjusted. The doses have to be reduced and if not done so the patient may get into trouble. After completing this course the patient can make use of the following Revision lessons for his practice.
Prayers, Sun Salutation- 12, Shavasana.
Yogasanas- Bhujangasana, Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana, Sarvangasana, Ashwini Mudra, Halasana, Matsyasana, Pashchimottanasana, Ar dha Matsyendrasana, Hansaasana, Parivarta Trikonasana.
Breath Regulation- Naadishodhan, Bhraamari and Bhas rika
Cleansing Processes- Laghu Shankha Prakshalana- onc e in a week, Vaman and Jalaneti- once in a week.
Yoga Nidra- Once daily.
Chanting of Aum- 15 minutes daily in the morning an d 15 minutes daily every night.
Juice of Bananas, carrot, bitter gourd, spinach, C oconut water, butter milk exclusive of butter, fresh leafy vegetables.
Bitter gourd, garlic, tomatoes, radish, aalu (a le afy vegetable tasting similar to spinach), coriander, fenugreek, cucumber, brinjals, sprouted beans, fruits of the lime group.
Preparatory Movements type 1 to 10 with fast speed. Sun Salutations 32 rounds in 8 minutes
All Asanas are to be practiced on Level 3 & 4 with concentration on pancreas. Asanas; Uttanpad Chakrasana 3 rounds – Dhanurasana 3 rounds, one minute each
Ashwini Mudra in Sarwangasana (3 minutes) – Halasan a (1min.) – Matsyasana ( 30 secs)
Ardhamatsyendrasana ( 2 minutes on each side) - Pas chimottasana ( 1 minute)
Akarna Dhanurasana ( 1 minute on wach side) - Udars anchalan ( 3 rounds)
Hansasana or Mayurasana 3 rounds each.- Privart Tri konasana (1 minute on each side)
Veerasana (1 minute on each side) - Shavasana (when needed)
Pranayama: Suryabhedan Pranayama with kumbhak for 1 0 minutes, Bhastrika Pranayama with kumbhak for 10 minutes.
Yoga Nidra: Specially designed for Diabetes or for Stress Relief. Meditation: on Manipoor chakra with the mantra “Ram ”
Asanas: Bhujangasana, Noukasana, Vipareetkarni, Vak rasana, Uttanpadasana, Pawavanmuktasana, Ardhpaschimottanasana, Ushtrasana . Garudasana, Trikonasana, Patangasana. Shirshasana (Head stand) & its variati ons.
Pransyama: Anulom Viloma with or without kumbhak, Right nostril breathing
Cleansing Practices: Jal Neti – Dand Dhouti – Vastr a Dhouti
Walking for 60 minutes
Suitable : Normal food with less fats & carbohydrate s but with high fibres. 58 Best food is fruits ( except banana, mango & grapes ) & vegetables
Avoid: Sugar, Sugar cane, Nonveg food, Milk & milk p roducts, Rice, Oily & Spicy food, refined foods, Fast Food, Preser ved Food.
This is a specially designed food program for reduction of weight. This includes the diet for three days as follows;
Daily Practice Program: To be practiced after compl eting the prescribed program.)
|No.||Asana / Yoga technique||Duration in min.|
|04||Sarvangasana (shoulder stand)||4|
|05||Halasana (plough pose)||1|
|07||Matsyasana (fish pose)||2|
|09||Paschimottasana (forward bend)||1|
|13||Sinhasana & Sinhamudra||3|
|14||Kantha sanchalana type 1, 2 (neck movements)||4|
|15||Shavasana (Corpse pose)||2|
|20||Kapalbhati (Forceful exhalations) 120 X 5||5|
|21||Ujjayi Pranayama with kumbhak||10|
|22||Sheetali (Inhalation) + Bhramari (exhalation)||8|
|OR Bhastrika Pranayama with kumbhak|
|23||Shitakari (Inhalation) + Bhramari (Exhalation)||8|
|OR Suryabhedan Pranayama with kumbhak|
|Total Time||90 minutes|
|Vaman Dhouti once a week|
|Laghoo Shankhaprakashalana once a week|
|Purna Shankhaprakashalana once a year|
|Meditation on Vishudhdhi Chakra with mantra “Ham”|
Yoga Vidya Dham, Kaivalya Nagari,
College Road, Nashik - 422005.
Phone - +91-9822770727 (for courses in ENGLISH)
+91-253-2318090 (For courses, in HINDI or MARATHI)
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